Glossary of Terms

Technical terms and know-how about jute yarn and jute rope explained.


  • Artillery Loop (Jp. Yoroimusubi) knot with a loop on the bight
  • Asa (Jp.) cannabis (Cannabis sativa); hemp (plant); hemp (fibre); linen; flax (fibre); jute (fibre)
  • Asanawa (Jp.) any rope made from bast fibre (flax, hemp, jute)
  • Aranawa (Jp.) Straw/grass rope


  • Baku (Ko. Jp. Zh.) orig. Han Chinese, restraint
  • Balance (esp. twisted; cabled rope) the dynamics whereby yarns (and multiple ply yarn, if used), strands and rope is twisted together to counteract tensions and prevent eg. recoil
  • Bark (esp. jute) hard, wiry, woody short filaments from the plant cane inner wall
  • Bast Fibre durable filaments from the phloem of certain eudicot plants, especially flax, hemp and jute
  • Batching a process used to spray an oil-water-emulsifier mixture onto jute filaments to aid softening ahead of yarn production
  • Batching Oil oil used in the batching process
  • Becket Bend see Sheet Bend
  • Birdcaging fault where rope strands loosen and open from proper lay
  • Bight (Jp. Gashira) the loop generally in the middle of a doubled rope
  • Blemish (esp. jute) fibre damage caused by insects, bacteria, disease, etc.
  • Book Knot (Jp. Honmusubi) see Reef Knot
  • Bowline (Jp. Moyimusubi) knot used to make a non–slipping loop
  • Braided forming by plaiting or weaving together strands
  • Break (esp. natural fibre yarn) generally caused by breakage by loss of an impurity or mechanical fault in manufacturing, or by excessive twist dynamics
  • Breaking In method of attempting to soften and smooth esp. jute rope by rubbing against a hard surface
  • Breaking Strength (esp. rope) stress at which a rope fails. NB. (esp. bast fibre rope) the International Standards Organisation (ISO), Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN), Japanese Standards Association (Ippan-zaidanhōjin Nihon Kikaku Kyōkai; JSA), etc. refrain from giving norms or standards for the breaking strengths of bast fibre ropes due to the incongruity of the medium used
  • Butter blend of oil and wax used to condition jute rope
  • Butterfly Loop (Jp. Cyukansyamusubi) alpine butterfly knot; lineman’s loop or rider forming a fixed loop in a rope


  • Cabled; cabling forming by twisting together strands
  • Cambium (esp. jute) harder surface of the inner plant wall separating the xylem stem
  • Carding (esp. bast fibre) mechanical combing of filaments into a uniform direction
  • Carpet Yarn (esp. jute) medium–heavy weight yarn produced for the carpet industry
  • CB (esp. jute) carpet backing yarn grade for weaving looms, often containing Jute Batching Oil (JBO)
  • Chain Stitch (Jp. Kusarinawa) loop stitch, a series of loops forming a chain–like pattern
  • Cinch see Latch
  • Circle knot (Jp. Marumusubi) Somerville Bowline bidirectional lashing knot
  • Clove Hitch (Jp. Makimusubi; Tekkamusubi) fastening to a spar or rope made of two half hitches in and lines emerging in opposite directions
  • Coating process used to spray onto yarn to reduce hairiness and/or add strength/lustre
  • Coherence fastness; integrity of a twisted yarn or rope
  • Conditioning (esp. jute rope) process to enhance by blending in oil–wax butter to add body
  • Cortex (esp. jute) fleshy part of the plant in which filaments grow used for yarn
  • Cow Hitch (Jp. Hibarimusubi) see Lark’s Head
  • Creel delivery system for yarn bobbins
  • Criss–Cross (esp. rope) diagonal method of winding hawser
  • CRM Carpet Rugs Master. Van de Wiele carpet backing weaving loom launched 1995, now discontinued of which the same CB carpet backing weaving yarn grade is specified, often containing Jute Batching Oil (JBO)
  • Croppy Fibre (esp. jute) sticky/rough filaments from the top of the plant
  • CRP Carpet Rugs Pioneer. Van de Wiele carpet backing weaving loom launched 2007 of which the same CB carpet backing weaving yarn grade is specified, often containing Jute Batching Oil (JBO)
  • CRT Carpet Rugs Tronic. Van de Wiele carpet backing weaving loom launched 1999, now discontinued of which the same CB carpet backing weaving yarn grade is specified, often containing Jute Batching Oil (JBO)
  • CRX Carpet Rugs Xavier. Van de Wiele carpet backing weaving loom launched 2003, now discontinued of which the same CB carpet backing weaving yarn grade is specified, often containing Jute Batching Oil (JBO)
  • Cuticle (Bot.) thin film covering the surface of plants
  • Cutting (esp. jute fibre) hard, sharp outer plant cane chip from harvesting


  • Double Column Tie (Jp. Soucyūmusubi) single column tie with additional overhand knot forming a secure Reef Knot
  • Drawing (esp. bast fibre) mechanical overlapping of combed filaments
  • Dressing (esp. natural fibre rope) method of equating imbalance produced when rope has been damaged in use, eg. pushing finger/s between strands, by gripping/rubbing along the rope in both directions to attempt regaining balance
  • Dust (esp. natural fibre rope) loose content picked up during production twisted into yarn/strand/rope


  • Emulsifier agent used to form an emulsion between oil and water used in batching
  • End (Jp. Nawashiri) open rope ends (but not knots)


  • Fence Lashing see Square Lashing
  • Fibre material composed of filaments
  • Filament individual fine thread; fibre or fibril
  • Fisherman’s Knot (Jp. Tegusumusubi) knot to join two ropes of equal thickness consisting an overhand knot or double overhand knot by each rope round the other
  • Foundation Rope (Jp. Motonawa) first rope being used
  • French Knot (Jp. Tamadome) ornamental stitch of three or four loops
  • Fundoshi (Jp.) loincloth; sash underwear
  • Furoshiki (Jp.) wrapping cloth
  • Futamusubi (Jp.) two half hitches


  • Gashira (Jp.) top; head; loop, see Nawagashira
  • Gekamusubi (Jp.) figure 8 double loop or surgical knot (ligature)
  • Granny knot (Jp. Katatoki honmusubi) incorrect, insecure version of a reef knot where bights cross in the wrong direction


  • Habijabi (Bengali) tangle; clump in a yarn
  • Hachinojimusubi (Jp.) figure–of–eight knot
  • Hairiness ICAR National Institute of Natural Fibre Engineering and Technology, Kolkata measurement of the number of protruding fibres from a yarn surface by an opto–electronic method, affected by raw jute quality, batching medium mixture and carding regime
  • Hakodome (Jp.) box knot or lashing
  • Half Hitch (Jp. Hitomusubi; Katamusubi) overhand knot, where the rope end is brought over and under the standing part and slips easily along line around which it is made
  • Hashi (Jp.) end of tie or rope
  • Hawser (Jp. Tawara; Tsutsumi) bale of rope
  • Hayanawa (Jp.) lit. fast rope; rapid tying
  • Hessian (esp. jute yarn) medium weight yarn for weaving cloth, general packing, linoleum and carpet backing applications
  • HG–CB High Grade-Clean Batch Tossa jute yarn batched with vegetable oil for longitudinal strength applications, eg. rope
  • Hibarimusubi (Jp.) cow hitch; lark’s head
  • Hitoetsugi (Jp.) sheep bend; sheet bend; becket bend; weaver’s knot or hitch
  • Hitomusubi (Jp.) half hitch
  • Hitotsumusubi (Jp.) overhand knot
  • Honmusubi (Jp.) book knot
  • Hunka (Bengali, esp. jute) hard/strong cuticle outer layer of plant that may be present in low quality yarn
  • Hydrophilic (esp. jute) action of filament cells to absorb liquid (esp. water) generating fattening and shortening


  • Imbalance (esp. natural fibre rope) produced when yarns (and multiple ply yarn, if used), strands and rope are imperfectly twisted together producing inequal tension/s, or when the rope has been damaged in use, eg. pushing finger/s between strands
  • Ipponnawa (Jp.) lit. one rope; to tie using only one rope


  • JBO Jute Batching Oil, a cheap, readily available petroleum–based mineral oil
  • Jute Count British colonial imperial measurement of weight in pounds of 14,400 yards of yarn quantity


  • Kakinemusubi (Jp.) fence or square lashing
  • Kannuki (Jp.) see Latch
  • Katamusubi (Jp.) see Slip Knot; Half Hitch
  • Katatoki honmusubi (Jp.) Granny Knot
  • Kazarinawa (Jp.) lit. decoration rope (without eroticism or sadomasochism)
  • Kinbaku (Jp.) binding tightly; tight binding; sexual rope bondage
  • Knurling series of bumps; knobs; knurls on the surface of twisted rope when manufactured from multiple–ply yarn
  • Komamusubi (Jp.) Reef Knot
  • Kannō (Jp.) sensuality; carnality
  • Kannōnawa (Jp.) sensual/carnal rope; erotic rope: 1980s Nureki Chimuo
  • Kusarinawa (Jp.) Chain Stitch; loop stitch
  • Kutcha (Bengali) raw jute fibre local market grading system (Top, Middle, B-Bottom, C-Bottom and X-Bottom)


  • Lark’s Head (Jp. Hibarimusubi) cow hitch, knot used to attach rope to object
  • Latch (Jp. Kannuki) girding cinch
  • Lay Ratio (also Lay Length) measurement of looseness/ tightness of rope twist. Note: no empirical data exists to determine the constitution of these values as eg. ‘tight’, ‘medium’, ‘loose’, etc.
  • Loop see Bight
  • Loop Knot (Jp. Wakkadome) knot with a fixed eye, eg. Bowline
  • Loop Stitch (Jp. Kusarinawa) see Chain Stitch
  • Lustre radiance or luminous brightness of yarn or rope material


  • Magnus Hitch (Jp. Sanjyūmusubi) similar to Clove Hitch, used to tie rope to a pole, spar or another line
  • Maki (Jp.) to wind around; to wrap around; to coil around, (esp. Shibari) wrapping
  • Makimusubi (Jp.) Clove Hitch
  • Mamusubi (Jp.) Reef Knot
  • Marlinespike Hitch (Jp. Tekomusubi) temporary knot used to attach a rod or rope to another to form a handle
  • Marumusubi (Jp.) Circle Knot; Somerville bowline knot
  • Mikinawa (Jp.) trunk rope dispersing weight in suspension
  • Morah (esp. jute) bale of folded filaments
  • Motonawa (Jp.) foundation; first rope being used
  • Moyimusubi (Jp.) book knot; occ. bowline knot
  • Mudanawa (Jp.) rope used purely for aesthetics
  • Multiple–Ply single yarns, generally of lower fibre quality twisted together, eg. 2–ply, 3–ply, etc.
  • Munter Hitch (Jp. Nodome; Nonojikake; Nonojitome) Italian hitch; crossing Hitch, adjustable knot to control friction
  • Musubi (Jp.) knot


  • Nawa (Jp.) cord; rope
  • Nawagashira (Jp.) loop generally in the middle of a rope (see Gashira)
  • Nawashiri (Jp.) rope ends (not knots)
  • Nawasuji (Jp.) rope fibre; rope pattern
  • Nodome (Jp.) Munter Hitch
  • Nonojikake (Jp.) alternative name for Nodome
  • Nonojitome (Jp.) alternative name for Nodome


  • Obliquity slant; slope direction. Neither perpendicular nor parallel to yarn or rope
  • Otokomusubi (Jp.) Square Knot
  • Overhand Knot (Jp. Hitotsumusubi) (esp. natural fibre rope) stopper securing the end from fraying


  • Parallel (esp. rope) parallel method of winding hawser
  • Parallelization (esp. jute yarn) the action of accurately bringing filaments parallel in the drawing process
  • Phloem (esp. bast fibres) vascular bundles forming plant tissue
  • Piling (esp. jute) to stack morah bales into piles for set time to allow batching oil to penetrate and soften fibre
  • Ply filaments twisted into yarn and, if multiple, the number of yarns twisted about themselves (as opposed to twisted into a strand)
  • Pucca (Bengali) raw jute fibre international market grading system (BW–special, BW–A, BW–B, BW–C, BW–D, BW–E for White jute; BT–special, BT–A, BT–B, BT–C, BT–D and BT–E for Tossa jute)


  • Recoil (esp. twisted; cabled rope) dynamic whereby yarns (and multiple ply yarn, if used), strands and rope are imperfectly twisted together producing unequal tension
  • Reef Knot (Jp. Komamusubi; Mamusubi; Otokomusubi) square knot; book knot, binding knot used to secure rope around an object; rope
  • Retting soaking in water to aid removal of fibre from woody tissue
  • Ring Knot (Jp. Wadome) water knot; tape knot; ring bend; grass knot; overhand follow–through used to join two ends together
  • Rolling Hitch see Magnus hitch
  • Root (esp. jute fibre) significantly weaker material runners from plant root grown under the soil surface in wet or damp conditions
  • Rope line or cord commonly twisted or braided from strands of yarn
  • Runner (esp. jute fibre) lengths of root material present in filaments and fibre


  • Sacking (esp. jute yarn) low grade medium/heavy yarns used for sacks and bags
  • Sanjyūmusubi (Jp.) Magnus Hitch
  • Seme (Jp.) torture; torment; persecution; sadomasochism, equiv. SM; S&M (1970s)
  • Semenawa (Jp.) sadomasochistic rope: 1980s Nureki Chimuo
  • Sheep Bend see Sheet Bend
  • Sheet Bend (Jp. Hitoetsugi) sheep bend; becket bend; weaver’s knot or hitch, knot for joining ropes of differing diameter
  • Shibari (Jp.) binding
  • Singeing (esp. jute rope) burning off filament hairs in clean blue flame
  • Single Column Tie unidirectional lashing knot
  • Single–Ply yarn of fibres twisted about itself representing the cleanest form for rope–making
  • Slip Knot (Jp. Katamusubi; Katamusubi) see Half Hitch
  • Slither (esp. jute) ribbon of post–carded and drawn filaments ready for twisting into yarn
  • Somerville Bowline see Circle Knot
  • Soucyūmusubi (Jp.) Double column Tie
  • Speck (esp. jute) small spots; areas damaged by bacteria, insects, etc.
  • Spool see Hawser
  • Square Knot (Jp. Otokomusubi) see Reef Knot
  • Square Lashing (Jp. Kakinemusubi) also fence lashing, used to bind spars at right angles to another
  • Staple (esp. jute yarn) spinning system commonly either ‘short’ for filaments used in eg. weaving applications, or ‘long’ for longitudinal load applications, eg. rope
  • Stem (Jp. Michinawa) road/path rope vertical over the spine
  • Stop (Jp. Tome) fastener
  • Strand one of a number of yarns twisted together to form rope
  • Stranding where a strand slips around the lay and projects above the surface due to irregularity in length with other strands
  • S-Twist (rope) left-handed twist/lay


  • Taba (Jp.) bundle of rope, commonly secured when not in use
  • Tegusumusubi (Jp.) Fisherman’s Knot
  • Tekkamusubi (Jp.) Clove Hitch
  • Tekomusubi (Jp.) Marlinespike Hitch
  • Tenacity (esp. jute rope/yarn) strength/linear density affected by raw fibre quality, batching, carding, drawing and twisting regimes
  • Thistle Knot Matthew Walker’s knot (Royal Navy 1808) decorative knot to prevent rope end from fraying
  • Tome (Jp.) stop; fastener
  • Tossa (Jp. Ouma) golden; yellow; nalta, corchorus olitorius variety of jute
  • TPI Twist per Inch. British Imperial measurement of the number of rotations in yarn, strands and rope
  • Trunk (Jp. Mikinawa) rope to disperse weight in suspension
  • Tsubaki Oil camellia oil; tea seed oil from seeds of the camellia japonica plant
  • Tsukamaki (Jp.) wrapping the end of the rope around a stem, see Maki
  • Tumble Drying (esp. jute rope) process method to dislodge loose fibre and/or blend in oil–wax butter for conditioning
  • Twine thread or string of thick yarn strands twisted together
  • Twist looseness/tightness a rope is twisted (see Lay Ratio)


  • Voice restrictive aperture through which strands are twisted to rope
  • VOT Vegetable Oil Treatment, plant–based alternative to petroleum mineral–based JBO


  • Wakkadome (Jp.) Loop knot or binding
  • Waste (esp. natural fibre rope) foreign bodies, often picked up into yarn or rope during manufacturing
  • Weaver’s Knot/Hitch see Sheet Bend
  • White Jute (Jp. Coma) corchorus capsularis variety of jute
  • Whipping (esp. rope) cord, thread, twine, etc. wound about the end of rope to prevent unravelling


  • Xylem (esp. jute) woody central strong core of the plant


  • Yarn (esp. rope) thread of aggregate of fibres twisted into twine or strands then twisted into rope
  • Yarn Weight see Jute Count


  • Z-Twist (rope) right-handed twist/lay